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Elephants, mammoths, mastodons, etc.

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Classification after Shoshani 1998.
Containing group: Eutheria

Other Names for Proboscidea


Court, N. 1995. A new species of Numidotherium (Mammalia: Proboscidea) from the Eocene of Libya and the early phylogeny of the Proboscidea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15:650-671.

Gheerbrant, E., J. Sudre, and H. Cappetta. 1996. A Palaeocene proboscidean from Morocco. Nature 383:68-70.

Gheerbrant, E., J. Sudre, H. Cappetta, and G. Bignot. 1998. Phosphatherium escuilliei, from the Thancetian of the Ouled Abdoun basin (Morocco), oldest known Proboscidean (Mammalia) from Africa. Geobios 31:247-269.

Greenwood, A. D., C. Capelli, G. Possnert, and S. Pääbo. 1999. Nuclear DNA sequences from late Pleistocene megafauna. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16:1466-1473.

Hauf, J., P. J. Waddell, N. Chalwatzis, U. Joger, and F. K. Zimmermann. 1999. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), phylogenetic relationships of Proboscidea to other mammals, and D-loop heteroplasmy. Zoology - Analysis of Complex Systems 102:184-195.

Haynes, G. 1991. Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Elephants: Biology, Behavior, and the Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Kalb, J. E. and D. J. Froehlich. 1995. Interrelationships of Late Neogene Elephantoids: New evidence from the Middle Awash Valley, Afar, Ethiopia. Geobios 28:727-736.

Liu, A. G. S. C. , E. R. Seiffert, and E. L. Simons. 2008. Stable isotope evidence for an amphibious phase in early proboscidean evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 105(15):5786-5791.

Mahboubi, M., R. Ameur, J. Y. Crochet, and J. J. Jaeger. 1984. Earliest knwon proboscidean from early Eocene of north-west Africa. Nature 308:543-544.

Ozawa, T., S. Hayashi, and V. M. Mikhelson. 1997. Phylogenetic position of Mammoth and Steller's sea cow within Tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 44:406-413.

Rohland, N., A. S. Malaspinas, J. L. Pollack, M. Slatkin, P. Matheus, and M. Hofreiter. 2007. Proboscidean mitogenomics: chronology and mode of elephant evolution using mastodon as outgroup. PLoS Biol 5:e207.

Sanders, W. J. 1999. Oldest record of Stegodon (Mammalia: Proboscidea). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19:793-797.

Shoshani, J. 1998. Understanding proboscidean evolution: a formidable task. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13:480-487.

Shoshani, J. and P. Tassy (eds.) 1996. The Proboscidea. Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and Their Relatives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tassy, P. 1987. A hypothesis on the homology of proboscidean tusks based on palaeontological data. American Museum Novitates 2895:1-18.

Tassy, P. 1988. The classification of Proboscidea - how many cladistic classifications? Cladistics 4:43-57.

Tassy, P. 1994. Gaps, parsimony, and early Miocene elephantoids (Mammalia), with a reevaluation of Gomphotherium annectens (Matsumoto, 1925). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 112:101-117.

Yang, H., E. M. Golenberg, and J. Shoshani. 1996. Phylogenetic resolution within the Elephantidae using fossil DNA sequence from the American mastodon (Mammut americanum) as an outgroup. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:1190-1194.

Yang, H., E. M. Golenberg, and J. Shoshani. 1997. Proboscidean DNA from museum and fossil specimens: An assessment of ancient DNA extraction and amplification techniques. Biochemical Genetics 35:165-179.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Mastodon americanus
Comments American mastodon
Reference Lankester, E. R. 1905. Extinct Animals. Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., London
Specimen Condition Fossil
Body Part skeleton
Scientific Name Loxodonta africana
Location Southern Serengeti
Body Part Face
Copyright © Greg and Marybeth Dimijian
Scientific Name Mammuthus primigenius
Location Royal BC Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Specimen Condition Model
Source Big Hairy Elephant
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2007 Kyle Flood
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Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2000. Proboscidea. Elephants, mammoths, mastodons, etc.. Version 01 January 2000 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Proboscidea/15987/2000.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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