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Odd-toed ungulates

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Black rhinoceros
Classification after McKenna & Bell 1997.
Containing group: Eutheria

Other Names for Perissodactyla


Antoine, P.-O. 2003. Middle Miocene elasmotheriine Rhinocerotidae from China and Mongolia: taxonomic revision and phylogenetic relationships. Zoologica Scripta 32(2):95-118.

Cerdeño, E. 1993. Cladistic analysis of the family Rhinocerotidae (Perissodactyla). American Museum Novitates 3142:1-25.

Cerdeño, E. 1999. Diversity and evolutionary trends of the family Rhinocerotidae (Perissodactyla). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 141:13-34.

Colbert M. W. and R. M. Schoch. 1998. Tapiroidea and other moropomorphs. Pages 569-582 in Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Volume 1. Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals. (C. Janis, K. Scott, and L. Jacobs, eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Dashzeveg, D. and J. J. Hooker. 1997. New ceratomorph perissodactyls (Mammalia) from the middle and late Eocene of Mongolia: Their implications for phylogeny and dating. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120:105-138.

Emry, R. J. 1989. A tiny new Eocene ceratomorph and comments on "tapiroid" systematics. Journal of Mammology 70:794-804.

Forsten, A. 1989. Horse diversity through the ages. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 64:279-304.

Froehlich, D. J. 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of basal perissodactyls. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19:140-159.

Groves, C. P. 1983. Phylogeny of the living species of rhinoceros. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 21:293-313.

Holbrook, L. T. 1999. The phylogeny and classification of tapiromorph perissodactyls (Mammalia). Cladistics 15:331-350.

Holmes, E. C. and S. A. Ellis. 1999. Evolutionary history of MHC class I genes in the mammalian order Perissodactyla. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49:316-324.

Hooker, J. J. 1984. A primitive ceratomorph (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the early Tertiary of Europe. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 82:229-244.

Hooker, J. J. 1994. The beginning of the equoid radiation. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 112:29-63.

Lucas, S. G., R. J. Emry, and B. U. Bayshashov. 1997. Eocene Perissodactyla from the Shinzhaly river, eastern Kazakhstan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:235-246.

MacFadden, B. J. 1976. Cladistic analysis of primitive equids with notes on other perissodactyls. Systematic Zoology 25:1-14.

MacFadden, B. J. 1988. Horses, the fossil record, and evolution: a current perspective. Evolutionary Biology 22:131-158.

MacFadden, B. J. 1992. Fossil Horses. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

MacFadden, B. J. and R. C. Hubbert. 1988. Explosive speciation at the base of the adaptive radiation of Miocene grazing horses. Nature 336:466-468.

McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.

Miller, S. S. 1999. Horses and Rhinos : What They Have in Common. F. Watts, New York.

Norman, J. E. and M. V. Ashley. 2000. Phylogenetics of Perissodactyla and tests of the molecular clock. Journal of Molecular Evolution 50:11-21.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Order Perissodactyla. Pages 1007-1040 in: Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth Edition. Volume II. (R. M. Nowak). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Pitra, C. and J. Veits. 2000. Use of mitochondrial DNA sequences to test the Ceratomorpha (Perissodactyla : Mammalia) hypothesis. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 38:65-72.

Prothero, D. R. 2005. The Evolution of North American Rhinoceroses. Cambridge University Press.

Prothero, D. R., E. Manning, and C. B. Hanson. 1986. The phylogeny of the Rhinocerotoidea (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 87:341-366.

Prothero, D. R. and R. M. Schoch (eds.) 1989. The Evolution of Perissodactyls. Clarendon Press, New York.

Rose, K. D. 1996. Skeleton of early Eocene Homogalax and the origin of Perissodactyla. Palaeovertebrata 25:243-260.

Xu, X. F. and U. Arnason. 1997. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and comparison with the mtDNA sequence of the Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7:189-194.

Xu, X. F., A. Gullberg, and U. Arnason. 1996. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the donkey and mtDNA comparisons among four closely related mammalian species-pairs. Journal of Molecular Evolution 43:438-446.

Xu, X. F., A. Janke, and U. Arnason. 1996. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the greater Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis, and the phylogenetic relationship among Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla (plus Cetacea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 13:1167-1173.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Black rhinoceros
Scientific Name Diceros bicornis
Location Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Life Cycle Stage juvenile and adult
Copyright © 2000 Greg and Marybeth Dimijian
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Tree of Life Web Project. 2000. Perissodactyla. Odd-toed ungulates. Version 01 January 2000 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Perissodactyla/15980/2000.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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