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Abraliopsis sp. V: Integmental photophore patterns

Richard E. Young

Drawings below are first made from photographs that are then compared with the preserved squid under a microscope. A small error will occur in identifying the two classes of photophores (red - counterilluminating photophores with red color filters = "complex photophores, and blue - simple photophores plus lens bearing photophores = "non-complex photophores." Blue photophores cannot, yet, be reliably separated, in preserved squid, into the two component types.). A damaged or developing photophore cannot always be reliably identified. Even the presence or absence of photophores can be difficult on strongly curved surfaces, for example, the sides of the head or mantle when viewed ventrally. Therefore, the photophore arrangement, sen below, is most accurate on the ventral surfaces when viewed ventrally and on the lateral surfaces when viewed laterally.

*** Abraliopsis sp. V: Integumental photophores of the funnel, head and arms. ***
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Figure. Ventral views of the integumental photophores of Abraliopsis sp. V, mature?? female, 33 mm ML, Central Equatorial Pacific. Left - Photograph. Middle - Outline drawing from photograph with all integumental photophores represented by colored dots. Right - Photograph with superimposed dots on integumental photophores. Red dots - Complex photophores. Blue dots - Non-complex photophores. Images by R. Young.

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Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral views of the same squid. Top left - Drawing showing only the non-complex (blue) photophores. Top middle - Drawing showing only the complex (red) photophores . Top right - Same drawing with lines connecting red photophores to aid comparisons of photophore patterns between species. Bottom - Drawing showing all photophores and lines showing red photophore patterns. Images by R. Young.

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Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Side view of the head of Abraliopsis sp. V, mature male, 30 mm ML showing lateral photophores. Left - Photograph of the preserved squid. Middle - Outline drawing from photograph with all integumental photophores represented by colored dots. Right - Outline drawing over dimmed photograph with all integumental photophores represented by colored dots, and with lines connecting some photophores. Red dots - Complex photophores. Blue dots - Non-complex photophores.  Lines connecting photophores assist in understanding the organization of the photophores. Black lines - Patterns based on red photophores. Yellow line - Pattern based on red and blue photophores. Images by R. Young.

*** Abraliopsis sp. V: Mantle photophores ***

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Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral views of the integumental photophores of the mantle of Abraliopsis sp. V, mature male, 30 mm ML, central Equatorial Pacific.Left - Photograph of the preserved squid. Middle - Outline drawing from photograph with all integumental photophores represented by colored dots. Right - Photograph (dimmed) with colored dots superimposed on integumental photophores. Red dots - Complex photophores. Blue dots - Non-complex photophores. Images by R. Young.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral view of the mantle photophores of the same squid. Left - Drawing showing only the non-complex (blue) photophores. Left-middle - Drawing showing only the complex (red) photophores. Right-middle - Same drawing with lines connecting red photophores to aid comparisons of photophore patterns between species. Right - Drawing showing all photophores, and lines showing red photophore patterns. Images by R. Young.

*** Abraliopsis sp. V: White photophores of the funnel groove ***

Table. Ventral view of the funnel-groove region of Abraliopsis sp. V. Top tier - Funnel groove showing photophores of funnel groove and surrounding tissue. Middle tier - White dots placed over "white" photophores. Black dots placed over two posterior-most red photophores of caret of median head series (marks approximate anterior end of funnel groove). Bottom tier - Same pattern of dots as in photographs but dots are colored. Colored dots, lines - Aid in comparison of patterns between species. Open dots - Represent photophores that are either of uncertain status as "white" photophores or have variable presence.  Images by R. Young. Comparison of white photophore patterns for all Abraliopsis species can be found here.

Mature male, 30 mm ML
Mature female, 33 mm ML





 

Comments: Summary of photophore distributions. (photophore definitions found here)

ARMS:
Medial Arm IV Series - Continuous; reaches about half of arm lenght.
Central Arm IV Sector - Scattered blue photophores at arm base.
Lateral Arm IV Series - Continuous; extends to arm tip. 
Lateral Membrane Series of arm IV - Reaches about half the arm length.
Arm III Series - Continuous; extends nearly to arm tip.

HEAD - Typical three photophore series on central-ventral head with:
Median Head Series - At least 5 "red" photophores in posterior caret. Anteriorly red photophores in slightly irregular single series.
Median Head Sector - Absent
Lateral Head Sector - Scattered blue photophores primarily in anterior region of sector, extending onto posterior arm IV.
Lateral Head Series - Single, nearly straight series of red photophores.
Window Sector - Scattered blue photophores anteriorly, otherwise photophores absent.
1st Lateral Window Series - Two segments broadly separated by mostly-single series of blue photophores: posterior segment with 2 red photophores; anterior segment with two red photophore but extending onto lateral arm IV membrane with additional one or two reds.
2nd Lateral Window Series  - Absent.
Eyelid Series - Photophores encircle eye opening. Posterior Eyelid Series with two large blue photophores displaced slightly posteriorly from eyelid series; more ventral of two, larger and more posterior. Formula: RbbBbB at 30 and 33 mm ML.
Occipital Series - Rbb.
Lateral Funnel-groove Series - 4 red photophores, in two segments, aligned.
White Patch (funnel groove). Complex-2 Pattern (red, green, blue; + yellow, maroon at larger ML).

FUNNEL:
Medial Patch - "Nose" pattern of 4 "red" photophores (one small, extra "stray" photophore at 33 mm ML). 
Lateral Patch - Two red photophores.

MANTLE: - Typical six photophore series on ventral mantle with:
Median Mantle Sector - Narrow but without photophores in midline (although a few are close) over entire mantle length. Central bare strip can be difficult to detect.
Medial Mantle Series - Single but irregular series of red photophores, becoming more irregular posteriorly.
Lateral Mantle Sectors - Numerous blue photophores, in First Sector and fewer  in Second Sector.
Lateral Mantle Series - Single, nearly straight, series of red photophores.
Mantle-angle Series - single, nearly straight, series of red photophores.

Comments:

The photophore patterns of Abraliopsis sp. V differ considerably from other members of the subgenus Pfefferiteuthis in the ...

  • presence of many, scattered blue photophores in the anterior part of the Lateral Head Sector and continuing into the posterior Central Arm IV sector.
  • continuous arrangement of photophores in the Lateral Arm IV series and the Arm III series.

It differs from most members of the subgenus, but is  similar to A. falco, in ...

  •  having a poorly apparent bare strip in the center of the Median Mantle Sector. 

The first and last of these features are similar to those in two species of the subgenus Micrabralia (i.e., Abraliopsis sp. NC1 and NC2).

About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Richard E. Young at

Page: Tree of Life Abraliopsis sp. V: Integmental photophore patterns Authored by Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

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