CalinagaNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
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A subfamily consisting of a single east Asian genus with an indeterminate number of species. Calinaga has been enigmatic and difficult to place in or close to any other nymphalid taxon (Ackery et al. 1999). Lately, Wahlberg et al. (2003, 2005) and Peña et al (2006) have shown based on DNA sequences that it is associated with the Satyrinae and/or Charaxinae.
Ackery PR, de Jong R, and Vane-Wright RI. 1999. The butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea. In: Kristensen NP, ed. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. 1. Evolution, systematics and biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4(35), Lepidoptera. Berlin: de Gruyter. 263-300.
Pena C, Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, Kodandaramaiah U, Nylin S, Freitas AVL, and Brower AVZ. 2006. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40: 29-49.
Wahlberg N, Braby MF, Brower AVZ, de Jong R, Lee M-M, Nylin S, Pierce NE, Sperling FAH, Vila R, Warren AD, and Zakharov E. 2005. Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 272: 1577-1586.
Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, and Nylin S. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 28: 473-484.
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University of Turku, Finland
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2009 Niklas Wahlberg and
Page: Tree of Life Calinaginae Authored by . Calinaga . Niklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 15 November 2009
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2009. Calinaginae http://tolweb.org/Calinaga/12188/2009.11.15 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Calinaga . Version 15 November 2009 (under construction).