Oh my goodness! Unless you are a Tree of Life developer, you really shouldn't be here. This page is part of our beta test site, where we develop new features for the ToL, often messing up a thing or two in the process. Please visit the official version of this page, which is available here.
Temporary Page


Sea lice, fish lice, tongue worms

taxon links Phylogenetic position of group is uncertain[down<--]Crustacea Interpreting the tree
close box

This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

close box
Containing group: Crustacea

Other Names for Branchiura


Abele, L. G., W. Kim, and B. E. Felgenhauer. 1989. Molecular evidence for inclusion of the phylum Pentastomida in the Crustacea. Molecular Biology and Evolution 6:685-691.

Abele, L. G., T. Spears, W. Kim, and M. Applegate. 1992. Phylogeny of selected maxillopodan and other crustacean taxa based on 18S ribosomal nucleotide sequences: a preliminary analysis. Acta Zoologica 73:373-382.

Almeida, W. D. and M. L. Christoffersen. 1999. A cladistic approach to relationships in Pentastomida. Journal of Parasitology 85:695-704.

Fryer, G. 1968. The parasitic Crustacea of African freshwater fishes: their biology and distribution. Journal of Zoology London 156:45-95.

Fryer, G. 1982. The Parasitic Copepoda and Branchiura of British Freshwater Fishes: A Handbook and Key. Freshwater Biological Association, Scientific Publication No. 46. 87 p.

Lavrov, D. V., W. M. Brown, and J. L. Boore. 2004. Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271(1538):537-544.

Maas, A. and D. Walossek. Cambrian derivatives of the early arthropod stem lineage, pentastomids, tardigrades and lobopodians - An 'Orsten' perspective. Zoologischer Anzeiger 240:451-459.

Overstreet, R. M., I. Dyková, and W. E. Hawkins. 1992. Branchiura. Pages 385-413 in: Microscopic Anatomy of the Invertebrates, Volume 9: Crustacea. F. W. Harrison and A. G. Humes, eds. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

Riley, J. 1986. The biology of pentastomids. Advances in Parasitology 25:45-128.

Riley, J., D. M. Spratt, and P. J. A. Presidente. 1985. Pentastomids (Arthropoda) parasitic in Australian reptiles and mammals. Australian Journal of Zoology 33:39-53.

Storch, V. and B. G. M. Jamieson. 1992. Further spermatological evidence for including the Pentastomida (tongue worms) in the Crustacea. International Journal for Parasitology 22:95-108 .

Walossek, D., J. E. Repetski , and K. J. Müller. 1994. An exceptionally preserved parasitic arthropod, Heymonsicambria taylori n. sp. (Arthropoda incertae sedis, Pentastomida), from Cambrian-Ordovician boundary beds of Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 31:1664-1671.

Walossek, D. and K. J. Müller. 1994. Pentastomid parasites from the Lower Paleozoic of Sweden. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh-Earth Sciences 85:1-37.

Zrzavy, J. 2001. The interrelationships of metazoan parasites: a review of phylum- and higher-level hypotheses from recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Folia Parasitologica 48:81-103.

About This Page

All Rights Reserved.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Branchiura. Sea lice, fish lice, tongue worms. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Branchiura/6248/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content

articles & notes



Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page