BiaAndrew V. Z. Brower
- Bia actorion
- Bia peruana
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
Bia was an enigmatic genus for a long time. Miller (1968) placed it as a basal satyrine in Biinae, a subfamily including Antirrhea and Melanitis that is now viewed as polyphyletic. Brower (2000) showed that Bia belonged to Brassolini based on sequences of the wingless gene, and this has subsequently been supported by additional DNA sequence data (Peña et al. 2005) as well as morphology (Freitas et al. 2002; Vane-Wright and Boppré 2004).
Brower AVZ. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) inferred from partial sequences of the wingless gene. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267: 1201-1211.
Casagrande, MM. 2004. Brassolini. In Lamas G ed. 2004. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.
Freitas AVL, Murray D, and Brown KS, Jr. 2002. Immatures, natural history and the systematic position of Bia actorion (Nymphalidae). J. Lepid. Soc. 56: 117-122.
Miller LD. 1968. The higher classification, phylogeny and zoogeography of the Satyridae (Lepidoptera). Mem. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 24: 1-174.
Peña C, Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, Kodandaramaiah U, Nylin S, Freitas AVL, and Brower AVZ. 2006. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40: 29-49.
Vane-Wright RI, and Boppre M. 2004. Adult morphology and the higher classification of Bia Huebner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bonner zoologische Beitrage 53: 235-254.
About This Page
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at
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- First online 29 October 2006
- Content changed 13 February 2010
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2010. Biina http://tolweb.org/Bia/70748/2010.02.13 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Bia . Version 13 February 2010 (under construction).